Transferencia de Tecnología Universidad-Industria en los Estados Unidos, 1997-2003

Mario Gómez, José Carlos Rodríguez

Resumen


Este trabajo presenta una primera aproximación a los procesos de transferencia de tecnología universidad-industria en los Estados Unidos. La puesta en vigor de la Bayh-Dole Act (1980) y de algunas otras leyes relacionadas con la propiedad
intelectual, modificaron el régimen de propiedad intelectual estadounidense, facilitado la explotación comercial de los resultados de las investigaciones desarrolladas en las universidades y laboratorios públicos que son financiadas
con fondos gubernamentales. Un resultado importante derivado de estos procesos ha sido el surgimiento y desarrollo de los spin-offs y start-ups, empresas que surgen al interior de las mismas universidades y que tienen un gran impacto
económico a nivel regional. Se presentan algunos modelos teóricos que estudian los procesos de transferencia de tecnología universidad-industria y la creación y desarrollo de los spin-offs. El trabajo también analiza algunas cifras que ponen de relieve la importancia de esta forma de transferir tecnología en las universidades estadounidenses.

Palabras clave


transferencia de tecnología; spin-offs; propiedad intelectual; patentes; Estados Unidos.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


ALVAREZ, S., and L. Busenitz. 2001. The entrepreneurship of resource based theory. Journal of Management 27: 755-776.

AGRAWAL, A. 2001. University-to-industry knowledge transfer: Literature review and unanswered questions. International Journal of Management Reviews 3: 285-302.

AUTM. 2003. Licensing Survey: FY 2003.

BOZEMAN, B. 2000. Technology transfer and public policy: A review of research and policy. Research Policy 29: 627-655.

BERCOVITZ, J., and M. Feldman. 2006. Entrepreneurial universities and technology transfer: A conceptual framework for understanding knowledge- based economic development. Journal of Technology Transfer 31: 175-188.

DEBACKERE, K., and R. Veugelers. 2005. The role of academic technology transfer organizations in improving industry-science links. Research Policy 34: 321-342.

EISENHARDT, K. M. 1989. Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review 14: 488-511.

ETZKOWITZ, H. 1983. Entrepreneurial scientists and entrepreneurial universities in American academic science. Minerva 21: 1-21.

ETZKOWITZ, H. A. 1990. The second academic revolution: The role of the research university in economic development. En: S. E. Cozzens et al. (eds.), The Research System in Transition. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

ETZKOWITZ, H. A. Webster, C. Gebhardt y B. R. C. Terra. 2000. The future of the university and the university of the future: Evolution of ivory tower to entrepreneurial paradigm. Research Policy 29: 313-330.

FLORIDA, R., and M. Kenney. 1988. Venture capital financed innovation and technological change in the United States. Research Policy 17: 119- 137.

GALLINI, N. T. 2002. The economics of patents: Lessons from recent U. S. patent reform. Journal of Economic Perspectives 16: 131-154.

HANEL, P. 2004. Intellectual property rights business management practices: A survey of literature. Note de recherche 2004-01. Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche sur la Science et la Technologie (CRIST). Montreal QC: UQÀM.

HINDLE, K., and J. Yencken. 2004. Public research commercialisation, entrepreneurship and new technology based firms: An integrated model. Technovation 24: 793-803.

JAFFE, A. B. 2000. The U. S. patent system in transition: Policy innovation and the innovation process. Research Policy 29: 531-557.

Mario Gómez - José Carlos Rodríguez CIMEXUS - 35

LANDRY, R., N. Amara y M. Ouimet. (En Prensa). Determinants of knowledge transfer: Evidence from Canadian university researchers in natural sciences and engineering. Journal of Technology Transfer (En Prensa).

MOWERY, D. C., and S. Shane. 2002. Introduction to the special issue on university entrepreneurship and technology transfer. Management Science 48: v-ix.

NIOSI, J. 1999. Fourth-generation R&D: From linear models to flexible innovation. Journal of Business Research 45: 111-117.

NLEMVO, F., F. Pirnay, and B. Surlemont. 2002. A stage model of academic spin-off creation. Technovation 22: 281-289.

O’SHEA, R. P., T. J. Allen, A. Chevalier, and F. Roche. 2005. Entrepreneurial orientation, technology transfer and spinoff performance of U. S. universities. Research Policy 34: 994-1009.

PIRNAY, F., B. Surlemont, and F. Nlemvo. 2003. Toward a typology of university spin-offs. Small Business Economics 21: 355-369.

RAPPERT, B., A. Webster y D. Charles. 1999. Making sense of diversity and reluctance: Academic industrial relations and intellectual property. Research Policy 28: 873-890.

SAXENIAN, A. 1994. Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. SHANE, S. 2004. Encouraging university entrepreneurship? The effect of the Bayh-Dole act on university patenting in the Untied States. Journal of Business Venturing 19: 127-151.

SIEGEL, D. S., D. A. Waldman, A. N. Link. 2003. Assessing the impact of organizational practices on the relative productivity of university technology transfer offices: An exploratory study. Research Policy 32: 27-48.

SIEGEL, D. S., D. A. Waldman, L. E. Atwater, A. N. Link. 2004. Toward a model of the effective transfer of scientific knowledge from academicians to practitioners: Qualitative evidence from the commercialization of university technologies. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management 21: 115-142.

STANKIEWICZ, R. 1994. Spin-off companies from universities. Science and Public Policy 21: 99-107.

VAN DE VEN, A. H., R. Hudson, and D. Schroeder. 1984. Designing new business startups: Entrepreneurial, organizational, and ecological considerations. Journal of Management 10: 87-107.

VOHORA, A., M. Wright, and A. Lockett. 2004. Critical junctures in the development of university high-tech spinout companies. Research Policy 33: 147-175.

WEST, G., and J. DeCastro. 2001. The Achilles heel of firm strategy: Resource weaknesses and distinctive inadequacies. Journal of Management Studies 38: 417-442.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas y Empresariales. Av. Francisco J. Mujica, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacán, México, C.P. 58030. Todos los derechos reservados 2013. Esta revista puede ser reproducida con fines no lucrativos, siempre y cuando se cite la fuente completa y su dirección electrónica. De otra forma requiere permiso previo por escrito de la institución y autor.